Causes and Solutions to Homelessness (Sources)

How Can the U.S. End Homelessness?

Alana Semuels. 4 25 2016. The Atlantic.

Here’s how Finland solved its homelessness problem

2 13 2018. Alex Gray. World Economic Forum.


Homeless hub.

Homelessness Prevention and the Welsh Legal Duty: Lessons for International Policies

Peter K. Mackie. 10 29 2013. Housing Studies.

Better than Cure?

Nicholas Pleace and Dennis P. Culhane. 2016. University of York.

Cost Effectiveness of Eviction Prevention Programs

Socio-economic Series. 11 2005. CMHC SHL.

Effective Homelessness Prevention? Explaining Reductions in Homelessness in Germany and England

Volker Busch-Geertsema and Suzanne Fitzpatrick. 2008. GISS.

Local authority homelessness prevention in England: empowering consumers or denying rights?

Hal Pawson. 2007. European Journal of Homelessness.

Youth Homelessness: Early Intervention & Prevention.

Chris Chamberlain and David MacKenzie. 1998. Australian Centre of Equity through Education.


William N. Evans et al. 9 2019. National Bureau of Economic Research.

City of Seattle is Dying or Thriving? WPC Young Professionals Panel Discussion

7 13 2019. WAPolicyCenter.

Seattle is Dying | A KOMO News Documentary

Eric Johnson. 2019. KOMO News.

The Fight for the Soul of Seattle | A KOMO News Documentary

KOMO News. 12 13 2020.

Homelessness Research: A Guide for Economists (and Friends)

Brendan O’Flaherty. 8 15 2018. Columbia University in the City of New York.


California’s homelessness crisis — and possible solutions — explained

Matt Levin and Jackie Botts. 1 8 2020. Cal Matters.

Homelessness is not inevitable and can be solved – these cities show us how

Jon Henley. 12 10 2019. The Guardian.

CAUSES….Why are so Many people homeless?

LA Family Housing.

Homelessness: A national problem with a local solution

Dan Vogel. 10 30 2019. USA Today.

‘It’s a miracle’: Helsinki’s radical solution to homelessness

Jon Henley. 2019 6 3. The Guardian.

Finland’s ‘Housing First’ policy proves that homelessness is avoidable

Fanny Malinen. 9 4 2019. Equal Times.

Housing First in Finland.


Finland ends homelessness and provides shelter for all in need 11 10 2020. Scoop.Me.


Centrepoint. 7 3 2020.

Beyond shelter

Peter Mares. 8 4 2020. Inside Story.

Housing First and the Homelessness Crisis: What Went Wrong?

Carlyn Zwarenstein. 7 23 2020. Filter.

The Mischaracterized Relationship Between Drug Use and Homelessness

Carlyn Zwarenstein. 5 21 2020. Filter.

Housing First and harm reduction: a rapid review and document analysis of the US and Canadian open-access literature

Dennis P. Watson et al. 5 2017. Harm Reduction Journal.,illness%20and%20substance%20use%20disorders.


Permanent Supportive Housing for Homeless People — Reframing the Debate

Stefan G. Kertesz et al. 4 27 2017. Perspective.

Not All Housing Is Created Equal

Melissa Francisca Felician. 2020. RAND. (Dissertation)

A randomized trial of permanent supportive housing for chronically homeless persons with high use of publicly funded services

Maria C. Raven et al. 2020. Health Services Research.

Health Service Utilization and Cost Outcomes from a Permanent supportive Housing Program.

Sarah B. Hunter et al. 2021. RAND.

Review Essay: The Council of Economic Advisers (2019) The State of Homelessness in America (The White House, Washington, DC).

Brendan O’Flaherty. 2020. European Journal of Homelessness.

Will Mayor Durkan’s legacy be defined by homelessness?

Sydney Brownstone. 12 13 2020. The Seattle Times.

Seattle to suspend work of team that sweeps homeless encampments, connects residents to resources

Becca Savransky. 10 1 2020. Seattle pi.

Housing First: Utah Ends Homelessness And Provides Shelter For All

Philipp Stadler. 6 8 2020. Scoop.

Homelessness in America: An Overview

Christopher F. Rufo. 2 17 2021.

Meta-Analysis of Day Treatment and Contigency-Management Dismantling Research: Birmingham Homeless Cocaine Studies (1990-2006)

Joseph Schumacher et al. 11 2007. Journal of Consulting and clinical Psychology.

Housing First for Homeless Persons with Active Addiction: Are We Overreaching?

Stefan G Keretesz et al. 2009. The Milbank Quarterly.

Changes in daily substance use among people experiencinghomelessness and mental illness: 24-month outcomesfollowing randomization to Housing First or usual care

Julian M. Somers et al. SSA: Society for the Study of Addiction.

Abstinence-Contingent Recovery Housing and Reinforcement Based Treatment Following Opioid Detoxification

Michelle Tuten et al. 5 2012. Addiction.

Contingency management in substance abuse treatment.

Meredith J. Dallery et al. 2012. Contingency management in substance abuse treatment in S.T. Walters & F. Rotgers (Eds.), Treating substance abuse: Theory and technique.

Contingency management: what it is and why psychiatrists should want to use it

Nancy M. Petry. 2011. Psychiatrist.

Contingency Management Reduces Symptoms of Psychological and Emotional Distress among Homeless, Substance-dependent Men Who Have Sex with Men

Jessie B. Fletcher et al. 2014. Ment Healht Subst Use.

The “Housing First” Approach Has Failed: Time to Reform Federal Policy and Make it Work for Homeless Americans

Christopher F. Rufo. 8 4 2020. The Heritage Foundation.

Hiding the Homeless

Christopher F. Rufo. 8 5 2020.

The “Supermarket Sweep”

Christopher F. Rufo. 10 21 2019.

Housing First for People With Severe Mental Illness Who Are Homeless: A Review of the Research and Findings From the At Home–Chez soi Demonstration Project

Tim Aubry. 11 2015. Can J Psychiatry.

May Lunchtime Talk with Prof Eoin O’Sullivan and Mike Allen

Focus Ireland. 5 28 2020.

Homelessness Episode 1 Part 1: Is Homelessness a Crisis

Sara Rankin. 11 4 2018. Symbol Podcast.

Webinar: Housing Not Handcuffs 2019 Report

National Homelessness Law Center. 12 10 2019.

Housing NOT HANDcuffs

National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty.

The Criminalization of Homelessness: Explained

Bidish Sarma and Jessica Brand. 6 29 2018. The Appeal.

Cities are criminalizing homelessness by banning people from camping in public. That’s the wrong approach, report says

Kristin Lam. 12 10 2019. Kristin Lam.

“Forced into Breaking the Law” The Criminalization of Homelessnessin Connecticut

Allard K. Lowenstein. 11 2016. International Human Rights Clinic.

The Hidden Homeless: Families Experiencing Homelessness (Director’s Cut)

My Road Leads Home. 7 2 2020.

Why can’t we solve homelessness now?

Forward. 12 15 2020.

How LA Profits from City-Wide Homeless Crisis | Soledad Ursua

1 2 2021. California Insider – The Epoch Times.

No Right to Rest: Police Enforcement Patterns and Quality of Life Consequences of the Criminalization of Homelessness

Tony Robinson. 2 5 2017. Urban Affairs Review.

Understanding the Implications of a Punitive Approach to Homelessness: A Local Case Study

Jennifer Wilking et al. 6 4 2018. Poverty & Public Policy.

Why are some people who have received overdose education and naloxone reticent to call Emergency Medical Services in the event of overdose?

Stephen Koester et al. 7 19 2017. Int J Drug Policy.

Pervasive Penality: How the Criminalizationof Poverty Perpetuates Homelessness

Chris Herring et al. 2020. Social Problems.

Interactions between Police and PersonsWho Experience Homelessness and MentalIllness in Toronto, Canada: Findingsfrom a Prospective Study

Fiona G. Kouyoumdjian et al. 2019. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry.

Canadian homeless mobilities: Tracing the inter‐regional movements of At Home/Chez Soi participants

Drew F. Kaufman. 10 27 2020. The Canadian Geographer.


Arabella Kyprianides et al. 11 2020. Power, Authority and Procedural Justice.–ExesJqJ7ztODPN1Wi9yFznwRVke6Sd7t0BCz5f-87_mXJkMINbA4RqtLoDgdWLDbdyjSbGenehQy3AIwM1pp7kPzavJ2ONb5WFNOeBXiX5ScUlJtNCXetBBj4P01eHquB9xlWUVJuKRfecAfh4WCcw7sO1y7ptouBKqdKCBg0QLlKHcbGe4INVmPSXKgbtdODS5qlrSFymOKHgJV1tCzOVSmOUdV3FYuVVcRlfuVxY7dAI8SDbqt8c_jGS7KhhNmR_irfY1e0kLK2r8j_gvjwAFdnnRYWJ7_cO4UMeA71p54eYeyZgkRXeZyp_BGd2iJ3ouriGTuN8VJMw-IivuAUQDZiYtqF46cmcbHGfmOdaYgsj9nVd7FHd00TU0I9WLh8bm2m_PHRzbtlC3eDoRweTLHByK9mkyWs32gyQztlmpToVjO_ltBGMUbCfCX2SDMVfPqci9hrEYtLkej83iUtQy05eQDsUMyaCCZIg9MiaDrElsyRVlw1D2m_VXy6ht5CAQKc3TUE1PlGtPx6vMXkmEnI8EY9ryPumQ0gMks6S7KKWOqWn3BkP6NTbBC4QVhRwpFghSf7ih_8dx55qh12wz0tgBPouSeJszIzUdT-c3NUkQxbj5mK9vDimICw_a1_OWdFUTFnt5LuZvtT81mo3rNEulnSQ

Housing Stability and Hepatitis C Infection for Young Adults Who Inject Drugs: Examining the Relationship of Consistent and Intermittent Housing Status on HCV Infection Risk

Meghan D. Morris et al. 2020. Journal of Urban Health.’

On the Criminalization of Homelessness

Thomas Dutcher. EBPSOCIETY.

Unhealthy by design: health & safety consequences of the criminalization of homelessness

Marisa Westbrook and Tony Robinson. 4 27 2020. Journal of Social Distress and Homelessness.

Homelessness: The Crisis on Our Doorstep | Full Panel Discussion | Oxford Union

Oxford Union. 7 14 2018.

How to Make Low-Income Housing Work As A Real Estate Investment?

Leif Kristjansen. 1 28 2020. Landlord Studio.

How (Smart) Landlords Can Benefit from Government Programs

3 16 2021. iPropertyManagement.

The cost of affordable housing: Does it pencil out?

National Housing Conference.

We Don’t Need Subsidized Housing

Howard Husock. 1997. City Journal.

Comment on Chester Hartman’s ‘‘The Case for aRight to Housing’’: Housing Is a Right? Wrong!

Peter D. Salins. 1998. Fannie Mae Foundation.

Affordable Housing Program Costs More, Shelters Fewer

Laura Sullivan and Meg Anderson. 5 9 2017. NPR.

The Homeless Chorus Speaks – Full Documentary

1 8 2019. Voices of Our City Choir.

Can anyone build affordable housing without public money?

Andrew Fichter. 8 5 2016. Greater Greater Washington.

Low‐​Income Housing Tax Credit: Costly, Complex, and Corruption‐​Prone

Chris Edwards and Vanessa Brown Calder. 11 14 2017. CATO.

How the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act puts affordable housing production at risk

Corianne Payton Scally. 7 12 2018. Urban Institute.

To improve housing affordability, we need better alignment of zoning, taxes, and subsidies

Jenny Schuetz. 1 7 2020. Brookings.

How Federal Intervention Can Ease California’s Homeless Crisis

Edward Ring and Soledad Ursua. 10 30 2019. California Globe.

The Shockingly Simple, Surprisingly Cost-Effective Way to End Homelessness

Scott Carrier. 2 17 2015. Mother Jones.

Once a national model, Utah struggles with homelessness

Gregory Scruggs. 1 10 2019. Reuters.

People who can’t afford rent are living in their cars, and cities aren’t sure what to do about them

Jennifer Graham. 10 19 2019. Deseret News.

Salt Lake City’s Homeless Relocation Plan Backfires

K Marlo Yost. 2 6 2020. Invisible People.

Why America Can’t Solve Homelessness

Michael Hobbes. 5 19 2019. HuffPost.

Building a Better Salt Lake City

Kaz Weida. 2 26 2020. Salt Lake City Weekly.

Salt Lake City Real Estate Market & Investment Overview

Marco Santarelli. 3 30 2021. Norada Real Estate Investments.

What S.F. can learn from Salt Lake City

Kevin Fagan. San Francisco Chronicle.

How is California’s Mass Exodus Impacting Utah?

2 6 2021. Utah Stories.

Housing Prices and the Threat to Affordability

James Wood and Dejan Eskic. 3 2018. Policy Institute: The University of Utah.

Utah’s Economic Exceptionalism

Natalie Gochnour. 2020. American Affairs Journal.

The Impact of High-Density Apartments on Surrounding Single-Family Home Values in Suburban Salt Lake County

Dejan Eskic. 2 2021. Policy Institute: The University of Utah.

What Rapidly Rising Prices Mean for Housing Affordability

James Wood et al. 5 2018. Gardner Business Review

How Salt Lake City upended the system to use police and shelters to fight homelessness

Doug Smith. 12 22 2019. Los Angeles Times.

Utah has nation’s worst housing shortage, new programs announced to help

Max Roth. 3 3 2021. Fox 13 Salt Lake City.

The Cure for the Wasatch Front’s Housing Crisis: More Affordable Homes Between North Salt Lake and Lehi

Stephen G. McCutchan. 3 8 2021. APA Utah.

Towns Across the West Face a Housing Crisis. More Sprawl Is Not the Answer.

Jake Bullinger. 3 9 2021. In These Times.

Utah’s Race to Provide Affordable Housing

Michael Hathorne. 1 14 2021. Strong Towns.

A Deep Dive: Homeless Services and Housing

National Alliance to End Homelessness. 9 25 2020.

Affordable housing looks to get another boost at the Utah Legislature in 2020

Luke Garrott. 1 22 2020. Building Salt Lake.

Thomas Wright: While Utah grows, the housing market is lagging behind

Thomas Wright. 10 23 2020. Deseret News.

Effectiveness of permanent supportive housing and income assistance interventions for homeless individuals in high-income countries: a systematic review

Tim Aubry et al. 6 2020. The Lancet.

Like many U.S. cities, Salt Lake finds it ‘can’t build way out’ of affordable housing shortage

Katie McKeller. 9 22 2019. Deseret News.

Young homebuyers scramble as prices rise faster than incomes

Josh Boak and Larry Fenn. 5 25 2019. AP News.

The Reasons Behind the Homelessness Explosion

Texas Public Policy Foundation. 1 15 2021.

Utah was once lauded for solving homelessness — the reality was far more complicated

Bethany Rodgers. 5 11 2020. The Salt Lake Tribune.

Utah’s homeless experiment

Katie McKeller. 12 1 2019. Deseret News.

Could these Texas solutions help Salt Lake’s homeless? A look at the ‘most talked about neighborhood’ in the country

Katie McKeller. 11 21 2020. Deseret News.

Is Housing First Failing Homeless People?

Sheridan Parker. 2 24 2020. Indivisible People.


Dennis Culhane. 4 2018. Center for Evidence-based Solutions to Homelessness.

Homelessness in the United States


San Francisco’s Stalled ‘Moving On Initiative’ Was Working Well, Report Suggests

Jared Brey. 12 19 2019. Next City.


National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty. 2017.

Step 3 to Ending Chronic Homelessness

San Rafael. 7 21 2017.


HUD. 1 7 2020.

Are We Creating Chronic Homelessness? The Past, Present, and Future of Federal Homelessness Policy

A Guest Policy Research Commentary. 10 2016. Institute for Children, Poverty & Homelessness.

What More Can We Do to Solve Our Homelessness Problem? | Insights on PBS Hawai’i

PBS Hawaii org. 2 21 2014.

New Utah population estimates see 14.6% growth since 2010

Adam Forgie. 12 17 2018. KJZZ.

Utah ranks No. 1 for population growth this decade — adds nearly 400K new residents

Lee Davidson. 12 19 2018. The Salt Lake Tribune.

Homelessness is declining in America

10 19 2019. The Economist.

Utah task force announces economic plan in response to COVID-19

Universe Staff. 3 25 2020. The Daily Universe.

Like many U.S. cities, Salt Lake finds it ‘can’t build way out’ of affordable housing shortage

Katie McKellar. 9 22 2019. Deseret News.

Rent drops in Salt Lake County. That hasn’t happened in more than a decade.

Taylor Anderson. 9 8 2020. Building Salt Lake.

Study Examines Effectiveness of Homeless Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program

1 22 2019. National Low Income Housing Coalition.

Housing First and Homelessness: The Rhetoric and the Reality

Stephen Eide. 4 21 2020. Manhattan Institute.


Homelessness Policy Research Institute. 2018.

Rapid Re-housing’s Role in Responding to Homelessness

Mary Cunningham and Samantha Batko. 10 2018. Urban Institute.

Supportive Housing Helps Vulnerable People Live and Thrive in the Community

Ehren Dohler et al. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 5 31 2016.

Effects of Housing First approaches on health and well-being of adults who are homeless or at risk of homelessness: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Andrew J Baxter et al. 2019. J Epidemiol Community Health.

Reducing and Preventing Homelessness: A Review of the Evidence and Charting a Research Agenda

William N. Evans et al. 7 2019. Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab.

A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of Housing First in a small Canadian City

Tim Aubry et al. 2019. BMC Public Health.

The Impact of Housing First in a Small Town: Emergency Service Use and the Changing Community Attitude

Heidi Brocious and Morgan Erisman. 2020. Collaborations: A Journal of Community-based Research and Practice

HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT – Fighting Homelessness in Spokane

11 13 2017. KSPS Public TV.

Homelessness: Can We Solve It?

Tipping Point Community. 12 13 2018.

Opportunities in Homelessness and Health

5 6 2020. University of California Television.

Utah homeless expert on solving homelessness

Portland Business Alliance. 11 20 2015.

Bussed out

the Outside in America team. 12 20 2017. The Guardian.

Ask us your question #SeaHomeless

Ana Sofia Knauf. 7 19 2018. The Evergrey.

Where are the homeless coming from? They’re mostly from here, service providers say

Daniel Beekman and Justin Mayo. 3 12 2016. The Seattle Times.

Portland Is Not a ‘Hub’ for Homelessness, With One Exception

[email protected]. 1 29 2019. Bridgeliner.

Myths about Homelessness

Tampa Hillsborough Homelesss Initiative.

Why do people come to Seattle for homeless services?

Ana Sofia Knauf. 7 20 2018. The Evergrey.

The different faces of homelessness

Insight SBS. 6 23 2015.

Do more homeless people really move to Portland?

Maggie Vespa. 5 10 2016. KGW8.

Bay Area homelessness:
97 answers to your questions

Kevin Fagan. 7 11 2020. San Francisco Chronicle.

“Word is spreading”: Is Oklahoma the place to be if you’re homeless?

Erika Stanish. 1 30 2020. Fox 25 Oklahoma.

Why homelessness is going down in Houston but up in Dallas

Juan Pablo Garnham. 7 2 2019. The Texas Tribune.

5 Key Facts About Homeless Veterans

Joy Moses. 11 89 2020. National Alliance to End Homelessness.

Veteran Homelessness: Overview of State and Federal Resources

National Conference of State Legislatures. 5 22 2020.

Crisis: Housing and Homelessness in California – Day 1

CATO. 9 22 2020.

Crisis: Housing and Homelessness in California – Day 2

The Cato Institute. 9 23 2020.

Roundtable: How To Fix San Diego’s Homeless Problem

KPBS. 1 27 2017.

@Home (Homelessness Documentary) | Real Stories

Real Stories. 7 1 2018.

#1290​: The Homeless Crisis With Dr. Drew

Mind Pump Podcast. 5 10 2020.

Searching for Hope: Homeless in Sacramento

KVIEvideo. 11 25 2019.

Methamphetamine overdose deaths rise sharply nationwide

National Institutes of Health. 1 21 2021.

Meth Overdose Deaths Are Surging in America, With Minorities Most at Risk

Steven Reinberg. 1 22 2021. WebMD.

As Meth Use Surges, One Region Tries to Combat ‘The Pull’

Christine Vestal. 11 1 2019. PEW.

Town Hall – Homelessness 101 with OC United Way

City of Huntington Beach. 3 31 2021. Orange County United Way.

How Atlanta Is Streamlining Funding And Targeting The Most Vulnerable To Reduce Homelessness

Jeremy Hobson. 2 22 2019. wbur.

Atlanta makes progress in reducing homelessness, but safety concerns worsen downtown

Maria Saporta. 8 9 2019. Atlanta Business Chronicle.

City’s annual census finds more people sleeping outdoors

Bill Tropy. 9 2 2020. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.

This city has a plan to stop homelessness by the end of the year

Adele Peters. 1 28 2020. Fast Company.

The City That Plans to Completely End Homelessness

Emily Nonko. 1 22 2020. Next City.

We Can End Homelessness through Housing First Interventions

Samantha Batko. 2 12 2020. Urban Institute.

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