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Harvard Injury Control Research Center. Havard T.H.Chan School of Public Health.


Arthur Kellermann, Sheryl Heron. 1999. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America.

Firearm possession and violent death: A critical review

Wolfgang Stroebe. 2013. Aggression and Violent Behavior.

Firearm Availability and Violent Death: The Need for a Culture Change in Attitudes toward Guns

Wolfgang Stroebe. 11 23 2015. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy.

Can owning a gun really triple the owner’s chances of being murdered? The anatomy of an implausible causal mechanism

Kleck GD. 2001. Homicide Stud..[]=citjournalarticle_39233_12


Response to Kleck

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Self-Defense Gun Use:  A Response to Kleck-Gertz “Illegitimacy…” in the J Criminal Law and Criminology

David Hemenway. 1998.

The Impact of Gun Ownership Rates on Crime Rates: A Methodological Review of the Evidence

Gary Kleck. 1 2015. Journal of Criminal Justice.

The Relationship Between Firearm Prevalence and Violent Crime

RAND. 3 2 2018.

The Accessibility of Firearms and Risk for Suicide and HomicideVictimization Among Household Members

Andrew Anglemyer, PhD, MPH; Tara Horvath, MA; and George Rutherford, MD. 2014. Annals of Internal Medicine.

Firearm Prevalence and the Risk of Suicide: A Review

Matthew Miller, MD, MPH, Sc.D.David Hemenway, Ph.D.. 2001. Violence and Public Health.

What Science Tells Us About the Effects of Gun Policies

RAND. 4 22 2020.


Harvard Injury Control Research Center. Havard T.H.Chan School of Public Health.

The Relationship Between Firearm Availability and Suicide

RAND. 3 2 2018.

Guns and Suicide

Join Economic Committee. Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney, Vice Chair.

The Science of Gun Violence

Russ Juskalian. 8 13 2019. Discover.

Suicide and firearms: Research in the 20th and 21st centuries.

Lester, David. 2019. Firearms and Suicide: Is prevention possible?

Relationship Between Firearms and Suicide: A Review of the Literature

Matthew Miller; David Hemenway. 1999. Aggression and Violent Behavior.

Firearms and Suicide

David A. Brent. 1 2006. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Macro-Level Research on the Effect of Firearms Prevalence on Suicide Rates: A Systematic Review and New Evidence∗

Gary Kleck. 2 5 2019. Social Science Quarterly.

Are We Missing Something Pertinent? A Bias Analysis of Unmeasured Confounding in the Firearm-Suicide Literature

M. Miller, S. A. Swanson, D. Azrael. 1 13 2016. Epidemiologic Reviews.

Firearms Availability and Suicide: Evidence, Interventions, and Future Directions

David A. Brent and Jeffrey Bridge. 5 1 2003. American Behavioral Scientist.

Risks and Benefits of a Gun in the Home

David Hemenway. 2 2 2011. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine.

Guns are the problem

German Lopez. 8 5 2019.

Will a Gun Keep Your Family Safe? Here’s What the Evidence Says

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Guns Cause More Problems Than They Solve

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The Accessibility of Firearms and Risk for Suicide and HomicideVictimization Among Household MembersA Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Andrew Anglemyer, PhD, MPH; Tara Horvath, MA; and George Rutherford, MD. 2014. Ann Intern Med..


Firearm Availability and Unintentional Firearm Deaths, Suicide, and Homicide among 5–14 Year Olds

Miller, Mathew MD, MPH, ScD; Azrael, Deborah PhD; Hemenway, David PhD. 2 2002. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.

Firearm availability and suicide, homicide, and unintentional firearm deaths among women

Matthew Miller MD, MPH, ScD, Deborah Azrael & David Hemenway. 2002. Journal of Urban Health.–3Gyoz6ZwTLDWgiDidig7-uYYmqMHy8

Household Firearm Ownership and Rates of Suicide Across the 50 United States

Miller, Matthew MD, ScD; Lippmann, Steven J. BS; Azrael, Deborah PhD; Hemenway, David PhD. 4 2007. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care.

Rates of Household Firearm Ownership and Homicide Across US Regions and States, 1988–1997

Matthew Miller MD, MPH, ScD, , Deborah AzraelMS, PhD, and , David Hemenway PhD. 2 18 2002. American Journal of Public Health.

Household Firearm Ownership and Suicide Rates in the United States

Matthew Miller, Deborah Azrael and David Hemenway. 9 2002. Epidemiology.

The association between changes in household firearm ownership and rates of suicide in the United States, 1981–2002

    M Miller, D Azrael, L Hepburn, D Hemenway, S J Lippmann. 2006. Injury Prevention.

Firearm Availability and Female Homicide VictimizationRates Among 25 Populous High-Income Countries

DAVID HEMENWAY, PHD, TOMOKO SHINODA-TAGAWA,MD, MPH, MATTHEW MILLER, MD, MPH, SCD. 2 2002. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association.

Association of rates of household handgun ownership, lifetime major depression, and serious suicidal thoughts with rates of suicide across US census regions

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Firearm Ownership and Suicide Rates Among US Men and Women, 1981–2013

Michael Siegel MD, MPH, and Emily F. Rothman ScD, MS. 6 10 2016. American Journal of Public Health.

Firearms and Suicide in the Northeast

Miller, Matthew MD, MPH, ScD; Hemenway, David PhD; Azrael, Deborah MS, PhD. 9 2004. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care.

Examining the relationship between the prevalence of guns and homicide rates in the USA using a new and improved state-level gun ownership proxy

Michael Siegel, Craig S Ross, Charles King. 2014. Injury Prevention.

State gun laws, gun ownership, and mass shootings in the US: cross sectional time series

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Firearms and Violence: A Critical Review (2005)

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Guns and Homicides: A Multiscale Geographically Weighted Instrumental Variables Approach

Firat Bilgel. 12 23 2019. Geographical analysis.

The impact of gun control and gun ownership levels on violence rates

Gary Kleck & E. Britt Patterson. 9 1993. Journal of Quantitative Criminology.



Firearms and Suicide in the United States: Is Risk Independent of Underlying Suicidal Behavior?

Matthew Miller, Catherine Barber, Richard A. White, Deborah Azrael. 9 15 2013. American Journal of Epidemiology.

Firearms and suicide in US cities

Matthew Miller, Molly Warren, David Hemenway, Deborah Azrael. 12 3 2013. Injury Prevention.

The Association Between Gun Ownership and Statewide Overall Suicide Rates

Michael D. Anestis PhD and Claire Houtsma BS. 3 13 2017. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior.

Suicide and Firearm Prevalence: Are Youth Disproportionately Affected?
Johanna Birckmayer, David Hemenway. 2001. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior.

“Results showed that firearm ownership levels are correlated with suicide rates among 15- to 24-year-olds and 65- to 84-year-olds, but not among 25- to 64-year-olds. The findings suggest that if the relationship is causal, a 10% fall in regional firearm ownership levels would lead to a 3.0% decrease in suicide rates.”

Contextualizing Homicide-Suicide: Examining How Ecological Gun Availability Affects Homicide-Suicide at Multiple Levels of Analysis

Gregory M. Zimmerman and Emma E. Fridel. 9 27 2019. Homicide Studies.

Household Gun Ownership and Youth Suicide Rates at the State Level, 2005–2015

AnitaKnopovBA, Rebecca J.ShermanBA, Julia R.RaifmanScD, SM, ElysiaLarsonScD, MPH, Michael B.SiegelMD, MPH. 3 2019. American Journal of Preventative Medicine.

Firearm Ownership and Domestic Versus Nondomestic Homicide in the U.S.

Aaron J.KivistoPhD, Lauren A.MageePhD, Peter L.PhalenPsyD, Bradley R.RayPhD. 9 2019. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

Homicide and suicide risks associated with firearms in the home: A national case-control study

Douglas J.Wiebe PhD. 6 2003. Annals of Emergency Medicine.

The association between the purchase of a handgun and homicide or suicide.

P Cummings, T D Koepsell, D C Grossman, J Savarino, and R S Thompson. American Journal of Public Health. 8 30 2011.

Risk Factors for Adolescent SuicideA Comparison of Adolescent Suicide Victims With Suicidal Inpatients

David A. Brent, MD; Joshua A. Perper, MD, LLB, MSc; Charles E. Goldstein, ACSW; et al. 6 1988. Arch Gen Psychiatry.

The Presence and Accessibility of Firearms in the Homes of Adolescent SuicidesA Case-Control Study

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The Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Stranger and Nonstranger Firearm Homicide Rates in the United States, 1981–2010

Michael Siegel MD, MPH, Yamrot Negussie , Sarah Vanture , Jane Pleskunas , Craig S. Ross PhD, MBA, and Charles King III JD, PhD. 4 10 2014. American Journal of Public Health.

Suicide in the Home in Relation to Gun Ownership

Arthur L. Kellermann, M.D., M.P.H., Frederick P. Rivara, M.D., M.P.H., Grant Somes, Ph.D., Donald T. Reay, M.D., Jerry Francisco, M.D., Joyce Gillentine Banton, M.S., Janice Prodzinski, B.A., Corinne Fligner, M.D., and Bela B. Hackman, M.D. 8 13 1992. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Gun Ownership as a Risk Factor for Homicide in the Home

Arthur L. Kellermann, Frederick P. Rivara, Norman B. Rushforth, Joyce G. Banton, Donald T. Reay, Jerry T. Francisco, Ana B. Locci, Janice Prodzinski, Bela B. Hackman, and Grant Somes. 10 7 1993. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Firearms and Adolescent Suicide A Community Case-Control Study

David A. Brent, MD; Joshua A. Perper, MD, LLB, MS; Grace Moritz, ACSW; et al. 1993. Am J Dis Child.

Access to Firearms and Risk for Suicide in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

Yeates Conwell, Paul R. Duberstein, Kenneht Connor, Shirley Eberly, Christopher Cox, and Eric D. Caine. 7 2002. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.

Association between handgun purchase and mortality from firearm injury

    K M Grassel, G J Wintemute, M A Wright, M P Romero. 2003. Injury Prevention.

Recent psychopathology, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in households with and without firearms: findings from the National Comorbidity Study Replication

M Miller, C Barber, D Azrael, D Hemenway, B E Molnar. 8 1 2009. Injury Prevention.

Firearm Storage in Homes With Children With Self-Harm Risk Factors

John Scott, Deborah Azrael and Matthew Miller. 3 2018. Pediatrics.

Guns in the Home and Risk of a Violent Death in the Home: Findings from a National Study

Linda L. Dahlberg, Robin M. Ikeda, Marcie-jo Kresnow. 11 2004. American Journal of Epidemiology.

Suicidal Behavior and Firearm Access: Results from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey

Marian E. Betz MD, MPH, Catherine Barber MPA, Matthew Miller MD, MPH, ScD. 5 2 2011. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior.

‘In the safety of your own home’: results from a national survey on gun use at home

Deborah Azrael and David Hemenway. 2000. Social Science & Medicine.

Gun use in the United States: results from two national surveys

D Hemenway, D Azrael, M Miller. 2000. Injury Prevention.

How the Hemenway Surveys Distorted Estimates of Defensive Gun Use Frequency

Gary Kleck. 3 20 2018. SSRN.

Easy Access to Firearms: Juveniles’ Risks for Violent Offending and Violent Victimization

R. Barry Ruback, Jennifer N. Shaffer, Valerie A. Clark. 8 18 2010. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.

Gun Carrying and Gun Victimization Among American Adolescents: A Fresh Look at a Nationally Representative Sample

Stephen J. Watts. 10 2018. Victims & Offenders.

Effects of Restrictive Licensing of Handguns on Homicide and Suicide in the District of Columbia

Colin Loftin, Ph.D., David McDowall, Ph.D., Brian Wiersema, and Talbert J. Cottey, M.S.. 12 5 1991. The New England Journal of Medicine.

Risky Lifestyles and Unintentional Firearms Fatalities

Rick Ruddell and G. Larry Mays. 12 2004. California Journal of Health Promotion.

Right-to-Carry Laws and Firearm Workplace Homicides: A Longitudinal Analysis (1992–2017)

Mitchell L. Doucette, Cassandra K. Crifasi, and Shannon Frattaroli. 12 2019. AJPH.

Suicide Rates and State Laws Regulating Access and Exposure to Handguns

Michael D. Anestis PhD, and Joye C. Anestis PhD. 4 29 2015. American Public Health Association.


TOMISLAV V. KOVANDZIC; THOMAS B. MARVELL. 3 7 2006. Criminology & Public Policy.

The Association Between State Laws Regulating Handgun Ownership and Statewide Suicide Rates

Michael D. Anestis PhD, Lauren R. Khazem BA, Keyne C. Law BA, Claire Houtsma BS, Rachel LeTard BA, Fallon Moberg BS, and Rachel Martin BA. 9 10 2015. American Journal of Public Health.

Firearm and Nonfirearm Homicide in 5 South African Cities: A Retrospective Population-Based Study

Richard G. Matzopoulos PhD, Mary Lou Thompson PhD, and Jonathan E. Myers PhD. 8 22 2013. American Journal of Public Health.

Gun-Control Legislation and the Impact on Suicide

Antoon A. Leenaars. 1 1 2007. Crisis.

Mixed Impact of Firearms Restrictions on Fatal Firearm Injuries in Males: A National Observational Study

Finn Gjertsen, Antoon Leenaars, and Margarete E. Vollrath. 12 30 2013. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health.

The impact of 1998 Massachusetts gun laws on suicide: A synthetic control approach

Leo H.Kahane and Peter Sannicandro. 1 2019. Economic Letters.

Does regulation matter? A cross‐national analysis of the impact of gun policies on homicide and suicide rates

Steffen Hurka and Christoph Knill. 12 21 2018. Regulation & Governance.

Impulse Purchases, Gun Ownership and Homicides: Evidence from a Firearm Demand Shock

Christoph Koenig and David Schindler. 10 14 2019. CESifo Working Paper

Repeal of Comprehensive Background Check Policies and Firearm Homicide and Suicide

Kagawa, Rose M.C.; Castillo-Carniglia, Alvaro; Vernick, Jon S.; Webster, Daniel; Crifasi, Cassandra; Rudolph, Kara E. Cerdá, Magdalena Shev, Aaron; Wintemute, Garen J. 7 2018. Epidemiology.

The Impact of State Firearm Laws on Homicide and Suicide Deaths in the USA, 1991–2016: a Panel Study

Michael Siegel, Molly Pahn, Ziming Xuan, Eric Fleegler, and David Hemenway. 2019. Journal of General Internal Medicine.

Association of State Firearm Legislation With Female Intimate Partner Homicide

Josie J.Sivaraman MSPH, BSN, Shabbar I.Ranapurwala PhD, MPH, Kathryn E.MoraccoPhD, MPH, Stephen W.MarshallPhD. 1 2019. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

The association of firearm laws with firearm outcomes among children and adolescents: a scoping review

April M. Zeoli, Jason Goldstick, Amanda Mauri, Mikaela Wallin, Monika Goyal, Rebecca Cunningham & For the FACTS Consortium. 2019. Journal of Behavioral Medicine.

The domestic violence fatality review clearinghouse: introduction to a new National Data System with a focus on firearms

Neil Websdale, Kathleen Ferraro, and Steven D. Barger. 2019. Injury Epidemiology.

Reducing homicide through policy interventions: The case of gun control

R Matzopoulos, M Prinsloo, D Bradshaw, N Abrahams. 12 5 2019. South African Medical Journal.

Does Gun Control Reduce Violent Crime?

Gary Kleck, Tomislave Kovandzic, Jon Bellows. 10 3 2016. Criminal Justice Review.

Australia’s 1996 gun law reforms: faster falls in firearm deaths, firearm suicides, and a decade without mass shootings

S Chapman, P Alpers, K Agho, M Jones. 11 2006. Injury Prevention.

Australia’s 1996 gun law reforms halted mass shootings for 22 years: a response to criticism from Gary Kleck

Simon Chapman and Philip Alpers. 5 18 2018. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice.;jsessionid=541880820FF7278C896702CB0851C9BE?sequence=2

Do Gun Buybacks Save Lives? Evidence from Panel Data

Andrew Leigh, Christine Neill. 8 20 2010. American Law and Economics Review.

Controlling firearms use in Australia: has the 1996 gun law reform produced the decrease in rates of suicide with this method?

Helen Klieve, Michael Barnes & Diego De Leo MD, PhD, DSc, FRANZCP. 2009. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.

WANG‐SHENG LEE; SANDY SUARDI. 1 22 2010. Contemporary Economic Policy.

Declines in the Lethality of Suicide Attempts Explain the Decline in Suicide Deaths in Australia

Matthew J. Spittal, Jane Pirkis, Matthew Miller, David M. Studdert. 9 2012. PLOS ONE.

Do Gun Buy-backs Save Lives? Evidence from Time Series Variation

Christine Neill and Andrew Leigh. 11 30 2018. Current Issues in Criminal Justice.

A systematic review of quantitative evidence about the impacts of Australian legislative reform on firearm homicide

Samara McPhedran. 5 2016. Aggression and Violent Behavior.

Australian Firearm Related Deaths: New Findings and Implications for Crime Prevention and Health Policies following revisions to Official Death Count Data

Jeanine Baker and Samar McPhedran. 2015. International Journal of Criminal Justice Sciences.

Time series robustness checks to test the effects of the 1996 Australian firearm law on cause-specific mortality

Benjamin Ukert, Elena Andreayeva, and Charles C. Barnas. 2018. Journal of Experimental Criminology.

Enhancing Evidence-Based Policy: Principles and Practice from a Case Study of Australian Firearms Legislation

Samara McPhedran and Jeanine Baker. 11 2008. Current Issues in Criminal Justice.

Firearm deaths in Australia after law reform

Simon Chapman. 2010. Medicine, science, and the law.

The Effect of the Australian National Firearms Agreement on Suicide and Homicide Mortality, 1978–2015

Stuart Gilmour PhD, Kittima Wattanakamolkul MSc, and Maaya Kita Sugai MSc. 10 10 2018. American Journal of Public Health.

Controlling Gun Violence: Assessing the Impact of Australia’s Gun Buyback Program Using a Synthetic Control Group Experiment

Bradley J. Bartos, Richard McCleary, Lorraine Mazerolle, and Kelsy Luengen. 11 2019. Prevention Science.

Interpreting Risk Factors for Violence in Australia: In Reply

Olav B. Nielssen, M.B.B.S., Ph.D., and Matthew M. Large, B.Sc. (Med.), M.B.B.S.. 1 13 2015. Psychiatric Services.

Change in Suicide Rates in Switzerland Before and After Firearm Restriction Resulting From the 2003 “Army XXI” Reform

Thomas Reisch, M.D., Timur Steffen, M.A., Astrid Habenstein, M.D., and Wolfgang Tschacher, Ph.D.. 9 2013. The American Journal of Psychiatry.

What the data says about gun deaths in the U.S.

John Gramlich. 8 16 2019. Pew Research Center.

Gun Violence Statistics

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Violent death rates in the US compared to those of the other high-income countries, 2015

Erin Grinshteyn and David Hemenway. 6 2019. Preventive Medicine.

Lethality of Suicide Methods

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The epidemiology and prevention of suicide by hanging: a systematic review

David Gunnell, Olive Bennewith, Keith Hawton, Sue Simkin, Nav Kapur. 1 19 2005. Internaitonal Journal of Epidemiology.

Suicide Case-Fatality Rates in the United States, 2007 to 2014

Andrew Conner, BS, Deborah Azrael, PhD, Matthew Miller, MD, MPH, ScD. 12 17 2019. Annals of Internal Medicine.

9 out of 10 Suicide Attempts Using Firearms Are Lethal

Elizabeth Hlavinka. 12 3 2019. MedPage Today.

Confronting the Firearm Injury Plague

Eliot W. Nelson. 7 2017. Pediatrics.

Prior suicide attempts are less common in suicide decedents who died by firearms relative to those who died by other means

Michael D. Anestis. 1 2016. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Lethality of firearms relative to other suicide methods: a population based study

E D Shenassa, S N Catlin, S L Buka. 2003. Epidemiology & Community Health.

Unintentional firearm deaths in the United States 2005–2015

Sara J. Solnick & David Hemenway. 2019. Injury Epidemiology.

Risk of Suicide, Homicide, and Unintentional Firearm Deaths in the Home

Elissa K. Butler, MD1; Hanne M. Boveng2; Richard C. Harruff, MD, PhD3; et al.4 13 2020.  JAMA Intern Med.

No Silver Bullet: Firearm Laws and Pediatric Death Prevention

Lois K. Lee and Judy Schaechter. 8 2019. Pediatrics.

America’s gun culture in charts

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Stand Your Ground: Policy and Trends inFirearm-Related Justifiable Homicide andHomicide in the US

Marc Levy,MD, Wilmer Alvarez, Lauren Vagelakos, Michelle Yore, Bertha Ben Khallouq. 2019. American College of Surgeons.

Opinion: Gun and self-defense statistics that might surprise you — and the NRA

Scott Martelle. 6 19 2015. Los Angeles Times.

How much should we trust crime statistics? A comparison between UE and US

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America is one of 6 countries that make up more than half of gun deaths worldwide

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U.S. Gun Policy: Global Comparisons

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The saddest trend

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1 17 2013. An Economic Sense.

United States vs Developed Countries on Gun Control

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The Steady Rise Of U.S. Gun Deaths

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